AKC Doberman Pinschers
AKC Breed Standard
The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.
Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27½ inches; Bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25½ inches. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equalling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body.
Long and dry, resembling a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. When seen from the front, the head widens gradually toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. Eyes almond shaped, moderately deep set, with vigorous, energetic expression. Iris, of uniform color, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs; in reds, blues, and fawns the color of the iris blends with that of the markings, the darkest shade being preferable in every case. Ears normally cropped and carried erect. The upper attachment of the ear, when held erect, is on a level with the top of the skull.
Top of skull flat, turning with slight stop to bridge of muzzle, with muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat and muscular. Nose solid black on black dogs, dark brown on red ones, dark gray on blue ones, dark tan on fawns. Lips lying close to jaws. Jaws full and powerful, well filled under the eyes.
Teeth strongly developed and white. Lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors a true scissors bite. 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. Distemper teeth shall not be penalized. Disqualifying Faults: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Neck, Topline, Body
Neck proudly carried, well muscled and dry. Well arched, with nape of neck widening gradually toward body. Length of neck proportioned to body and head. Withers pronounced and forming the highest point of the body. Back short, firm, of sufficient width, and muscular at the loins, extending in a straight line from withers to the slightly rounded croup.
Chest broad with forechest well defined. Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. Brisket reaching deep to the elbow. Belly well tucked up, extending in a curved line from the brisket. Loins wide and muscled. Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders. Tail docked at approximately second joint, appears to be a continuation of the spine, and is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.
Shoulder Blade - sloping forward and downward at a 45-degree angle to the ground meets the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from elbow to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with heavy bone. In normal pose and when gaiting, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet well arched, compact, and catlike, turning neither in nor out.
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hip Bone falls away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Upper Shanks at right angles to the hip bones, are long, wide, and well muscled on both sides of thigh, with clearly defined stifles. Upper and lower shanks are of equal length. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel to each other, and wide enough apart to fit in with a properly built body. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed. Cat feet as on front legs, turning neither in nor out.
Smooth-haired, short, hard, thick and close lying. Invisible gray undercoat on neck permissible.
Color and Markings
Allowed Colors: Black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). Markings: Rust, sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet, and below tail. White patch on chest, not exceeding ½ square inch, permissible. Disqualifying Fault: Dogs not of an allowed color.
Free, balanced, and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there is strong rear-action drive. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track.
Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman.
Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree.
Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch, undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Dogs not of an allowed color.
Approved February 6, 1982
Reformatted November 6, 1990
Breed Standard FCI #143
Breed Standard FCI No 143
Classification: Dog & pet protection work.
Rank D.K.O. :
Group 2 (Pintser & Snaoutser, Molossoid & Swiss Mountain Dogs & Voofylakes)
Section 1 (Pintser & Snaoutser)
Subject to Work Examinations
GENERAL APPEARANCE: The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature and temperamental character and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of a dog.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The body of the Dobermann appears to be almost square, particularly in males. The length of the body measured from the pro sternum to the ischium shall not be more than 5% longer than the height from the withers to the ground in males, and 10% in females.
BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: The disposition of the Dohermann is friendly and calm; very devoted to the family, it loves children. Medium temperament and medium sharpness (alertness) is desired. A medium threshold of irritation is required with a good contact to the owner. The Dobermann enjoys working, and shall have good working ability, courage and hardness. The particular values of self confidence and intrepidness are required, and also adaptability and attention to fit the social environment.
HEAD: CRANIAL REGION: Strong and in proportion to the body. Seen from the top the head is shaped in the form of a blunt wedge. Viewed from the front the crown line shall be almost level and not dropping off the ears, The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull which falls, gently rounded, into the neck line, The eyebrow bone is well developed without protruding. The forehead furrow is still visible. The Occiput shall not be conspicuous. Seen from the front and the top the sides of the head must not bulge. The slight bulge between the rear of the upper jawbone and the cheek bone shall be in harmony with the total length of the head. The head muscles shall be well developed.
STOP Shall be slight but visibly developed.
FACIAL REGION NOSE Nostrils well developed, more broad than round, with large openings without overall protrusion. Black on black dogs; on brown and blue dogs, corresponding lighter shades.
MUZZLE The muzzle must be in the right proportion with the upper head and must he strongly developed. The muzzle shall have depth. The mouth opening shall be wide, reaching to the molars. A good muzzle width must also be present on the upper and lower incisor area.
FLEWS They shall be tight and lie close to the jaw which will ensure a tight closure of the mouth. The pigment of the gum to be dark; on blue and brown dogs a corresponding lighter shade.
JAW/DENTITION/TEETH Powerful broad upper and under jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
EYES Middle sized, oval and dark in colour. Lighter shades are permitted for brown and blue dogs. Close lying eyelids. Eyelids shall be covered with hair. Baldness around the rim of the eye is highly undesirable.
EARS The ear, which is set high, is carried erect and cropped to a length in proportion to the head. In a country where cropping is not permitted the uncropped ear is equally recognised. (Medium size preferred and with the front edge lying close to the cheeks.)
NECK: The neck must have a good length and be in proportion to the body and the head. It is dry and muscular. Its outline rises gradually and is softly curved. Its carriage is upright and shows much nobility.
BODY: WITHERS Shall be pronounced, in height and length, especially in males and thereby determine the slope of the topline rising from the croup to the withers.
BACK It is short and tight. The back and the loin section are of good width and well muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer in loin because she requires space for suckling.
CROUP It shall fall slightly, hardly perceptible from sacrum to the root of the tail, and appears well rounded, being neither straight nor noticeably sloping, of good width and well muscled.
CHEST Length and depth of chest must be in the right proportion to the body length. The depth with slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% the height of the dog at the withers. The chest has got a good width with especially well developed forechest.
UNDERLINE From the bottom of the breastbone to the pelvis the underline is noticeably tucked up.
TAIL It is high set and docked short whereby approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is legally not permitted the tail may remain natural.
TESTICLES In males both testicles must be normally developed and be visible in the scrotum.
LlMBS: FOREQUARTERS: General: The front legs as seen from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
SHOULDERS The shoulder blade lies close against the chest, and both sides of the shoulder blade edge are well muscled and reach over the top of the thoracic vertebra, slanting as much as possible and well set hack. The angle to the horizontal is approximately 50 degrees.
UPPER ARM Good length, well muscled, the angle to the shoulder blade is approximately 105 to 110 degrees. ELBOW Close in, not turned out.
LOWER ARM Strong and straight. Well muscled. Length in harmony with the whole body.
METACARPUS Bones strong. Straight seen from the front. Seen from the side, only slightly sloping, maximum 10 degrees.
FRONT FOOT The feet are short and tight. The toes are arched towards the top (cat like). Nails short and black.
HINDQUARTERS: General: Seen from the hack the Dobermann looks, because of his well developed pelvic muscles in hips and croup, wide and rounded off. The muscles running from the pelvis towards the upper and lower thigh result in good width development, as well as in the topper thigh area, in the knee joint area and at the lower thigh. The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
UPPER THIGH Good length and width, well muscled. Good angulation to the hip joint. Angulation to the horizontal approximately between 80 to 85 degrees.
KNEE The knee joint is strong and is formed by the upper and lower thigh as well as the knee cap. The knee angulation is approximately 130 degrees.
LOWER THIGH Medium length and in harmony with the total length of the hindquarter.
HOCK JOINT Medium strength and parallel. The lower thigh bone is joined to the metatarsal at the hock joint (angle about 140 degrees).
METATARSUS It is short and stands vertical to the ground.
HIND FOOT Like the front feet, the toes of the back feet are short, arched and closed. Nails are short and black.
GAIT: The gait is of special importance to both the working ability as well as the exterior appearance. The gait is elastic, elegant, agiles free and ground covering. The front legs reach out as far as possible. The hindquarter gives far reaching and necessary elastic drive. The front leg of one side and back leg of the other side move forward at the same time. There should be good stability of the back, the ligaments and the joints.
SKIN: The skin fits closely all over and is of good pigment.
COAT: HAIR The hair is short, hard and thicken It lies tight and smooth and is equally distributed over the whole surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
COLOURS The colour is black, dark brown or blue, with rust red clearly defined and clean markings. Markings on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks and the top of the eyebrow; on the throat, two spots on the forechest, on the metacarpus, metatarsus and feet, on the inside of the back thigh, on the arms and below the tail.
SIZE AND WEIGHT: SIZE Height at the highest point of withers: Males: 68 to 72cms. Bitches: 63 to 68cms. Medium size desirable.
WEIGHT Males ca. 40 to 45 kg. Bitches ca. 32 to 35 kg.
FAULTS: GENERAL APPEARANCE: Reversal of sexual impression; little substance; too light; too heavy; too leggy; weak bones.
HEAD: Too heavy; too narrow; too short; too long; too much or too little stop; Roman nose; bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak underjaw; round or slit eyes; light eye; cheeks too heavy; loose flews; eyes too open or too deepset; ear set too high or too low; open mouth angle.
NECK: Slightly short; too short; loose skin around the throat; dewlap; too long (not in harmony); ewe neck.
BODY: Back not tight; sloping croup; sway back; roach back; insufficient or too much spring of rib; insufficient depth or width of chest, back too long overall; too little forechest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too much tuck up.
LIMBS: Too little or too much angulation in front or hindquarters; loose elbow; deviations from the standard position and length of bones and joints; feet too close together or too wide apart; cowhocks, spread hocks, close hocks; open or soft paws, crooked toes; pale nails.
COAT: Markings too light or not sharply defined; smudged markings; mask too dark; big black spot on the legs; chest markings hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull. Thin coat; bald patches; large tufts of hair purffcularly on the body; visible undercoat.
CHARACTER: Inadequate self confidence; temperament too high; sharpness/aggressiveness too high; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
SIZE: Deviation of size up to two centimetres from the standard should result in a lowering of the quality grading. GAIT: Wobbly; restricted or stiff gait; pacing.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: GENERAL: Pronounced reversal of sexual impressions
EYES: Yellow eyes (bird of prey eye); wall eye.
DENTITION: Overshot; level bite; undershot; missing teeth.
TESTICLES: Absence of two normally developed testicles in the scrotum.
COAT: White spots; pronounced long and wavy hair; pronounced thin coat or large bald patches.
CHARACTER: Fearful; shy; nervous and overly aggressive animals.
SIZE: Dogs which deviate more than two centimetres over or under the standard.